The reason for the defeat was not the army, and the reason for the defeat

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The history of China is distinguished by a variety of written sources that, combined with archaeological data, allow reconstructing political life and social processes, starting from ancient times. Ancient canonized Chinese texts of religious, philosophical, and historical content, especially those in which the teachings of Confucius were expounded, in turn influenced the later development of Chinese civilization, the worldview of the Chinese people.

Since the time of Confucius, Chinese civilization has been characterized by a high socio-political activity of each person, aimed at achieving happiness and well-being precisely in earthly life, while their destiny did not depend on divine predestination, but on their own efforts.

Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world. According to Chinese scholars such as Liu Bei Xin and Xiu Fenma, it may be five thousand years old, with written sources available covering a period of at least 3500 years. The long existence of administrative systems, which were improved by successive dynasties, created obvious advantages for the Chinese state, whose economy was based on developed agriculture, compared to more backward, nomadic and mountain neighbors. Chinese civilization was further strengthened with the introduction of Confucianism as a state ideology (1st century BC) and a unified writing system (2nd century BC).

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